Kaaiaa Pelvic Floor Physiotherapy
Kaaiaa Pelvic Floor Physiotherapy
Pelvic Floor Specialists in Inglewood, Calgary

    Tissue Changes During Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    Wednesday, June 28, 2023 09:56 PM Comment(s) By Nav Grewal, PT

    Learn more about how connective tissue supports you.


    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) occurs when the pelvic organs, such as the bladder, uterus, or rectum, descend or bulge into the vaginal canal due to weakened or stretched pelvic floor muscles and supporting connective tissues. Connective tissues play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and support of the pelvic floor. When these tissues undergo changes, it can contribute to the development of POP. Let's explore the changes in connective tissue associated with POP and the research conducted in this area.

    Connective Tissue Changes in Pelvic Organ Prolapse:

    1. Collagen Disorganization: Several studies have demonstrated alterations in the collagen structure and organization within the connective tissue of women with POP. Collagen provides strength and support to the tissues. In POP, there is often a decrease in collagen content and an increase in collagen disorganization. These changes can weaken the supportive network of the pelvic floor, leading to tissue laxity and prolapse.
    2. Elastin Alterations: Elastin is a protein that provides elasticity and recoil to the tissues. Research suggests that women with POP exhibit reduced elastin content and alterations in elastin fiber organization. These changes may contribute to decreased tissue elasticity and the inability of the connective tissues to maintain normal pelvic organ position.
    3. Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP) Activity: MMPs are enzymes involved in tissue remodeling. Studies have shown increased MMP activity in the connective tissues of women with POP. Elevated MMP activity can lead to excessive breakdown of collagen and elastin, impairing the structural integrity of the pelvic floor tissues.
    4. Decreased Fibroblast Activity: Fibroblasts are cells responsible for synthesizing and maintaining connective tissue components. Research suggests that women with POP have decreased fibroblast activity in the pelvic floor tissues. This reduction in fibroblast function may impair the synthesis and remodeling of collagen and elastin, contributing to tissue weakness.

    Research Findings:

    Numerous studies have investigated the changes in connective tissue associated with pelvic organ prolapse. Here are some key findings:

    1. Biomechanical Analysis: Biomechanical studies have demonstrated decreased stiffness and strength in the connective tissues of women with POP compared to those without prolapse. These findings support the notion that connective tissue alterations contribute to the development of prolapse.
    2. Histological Analysis: Histological studies examining tissue samples from women with POP have shown disruptions in collagen fiber orientation and increased collagen fragmentation. These findings suggest that connective tissue changes are present at the microscopic level in women with prolapse.
    3. Genetic Studies: Genetic studies have identified potential genetic factors that may contribute to connective tissue alterations and increased susceptibility to POP. Variations in genes encoding collagen and elastin, as well as genes involved in extracellular matrix metabolism, have been associated with POP risk.
    4. Biomolecular Analysis: Biomolecular studies have investigated the expression levels of proteins involved in connective tissue metabolism in women with POP. Elevated levels of MMPs, along with decreased expression of proteins involved in collagen synthesis and remodeling, have been observed.

    It is important to note that the exact mechanisms underlying connective tissue changes in POP are still being investigated, and further research is needed to fully understand the complexity of these processes.


    Pelvic organ prolapse is associated with changes in the connective tissue of the pelvic floor, including collagen disorganization, alterations in elastin content, increased MMP activity, and decreased fibroblast function. These changes contribute to the weakening of the supportive network and can lead to the descent of pelvic organs. Biomechanical, histological, genetic, and biomolecular studies have provided valuable insights into these connective tissue alterations in women with POP. Understanding these changes is essential for developing targeted therapeutic strategies aimed at strengthening the connective tissues and improving pelvic floor support. Pelvic floor strengthening and doing kegels can help improve prolapse symptoms and prevent progression. Book with us now to help reduce and eliminate your symptoms.

    Nav Grewal, PT